Oak, Bur

Quercus macrocarpa

Fagaceae - Beech and Oak Family

Description

Leaves: Alternate; simple; oblong to obovate; 6" to 10" long, 3" to 5" wide; deciduous; margin with 5 to 9 rounded lobes; variable shape; dark green and glabrous above; pale and hairy beneath; yellow to brown fall color; petiole 1" long, hairy.

Twigs/buds: Twigs stout; yellow-brown; becoming ashen or brown; hairy; often with corky ridges.  Terminal buds clustered at end of twig, blunt; lateral buds smaller.

Flowers/fruit: Monoecious.  Fruit an acorn; short-stalked; about 1" long; 1/2 or more enclosed by fringed cap; matures in one season.

Bark: Thick; gray-brown; deeply furrowed and ridged.

Wood: Important; sapwood white to light brown; heartwood light to dark brown; growth rings very distinct; ring-porous; rays visible to naked eye; pores normally filled by hardened bubbles; used for lumber, furniture, barrels, etc.

General: Native from the Great Plains east throughout the Midwest and Lake States.  An important tree species where native that grows on fairly dry upland sites as well as lower wetter sites.  It can also be found in fairly dense forests or as scattered trees on the edges of the prairie.  It is long lived and drought tolerant.  Intermediate shade tolerance.

Landscape Use: This is one of the best non-native trees for planting in most parts of Utah.  Many of these oaks that grow into the edges of the Great Plains do well in Utah because of their adaptations to high soil pH, moderate to severe drought, heat, cold, and winds that are common on the Plains.  Bur oak grows at a medium rate and gets fairly large; has an excellent broad canopy and beautiful dark-green leaves; is affected by few pests; and is becoming more available in nurseries.  Zones 2-8.

Comments & Limitations:  Acorns can be a nuisance.

Characteristics

General

Fagaceae - Beech and Oak
Family:
No
Cultivar Availability:
2 - 8
Hardiness Zone:
Broadleaf
Type:
No
Utah Native:

Growth

Medium
Growth Rate:
High
Mature Height:
High
Longevity:
No
Power Lines:
Broad
Crown Shape:

Ornamental

No
Bark:
No
Fall Color:
No
Flowers:
Yes
Foliage:
Yes
Fruit:

Tolerance of...

Medium
Shade:
Medium
Salt:
High
Drought:
Medium
Poor Drainage:
High
Alkalinity:
Medium
Transplanting:
x

Family

A group of closely related species and genera; scientific name ends in 'aceae'.

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Cultivar Availability

Cultivar Availability means that selected, genetically pure trees are available with known characteristics. Cultivars often prove to be more desirable than trees grown from seed or collected in the wild.

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USDA Hardiness Zone

Pick a hardiness zone to show which trees are suitable.

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Tree Type

Select Conifer for pines, firs, junipers, ginkgo, and other conifers (gymnosperms). Select Broadleaf for trees with broad, flat leaves (more or less) (angiosperms).

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Utah Native

Utah Native

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Growth Rate

Growth rate refers to height growth for the first ten years after a tree is planted. Select Low for less than 12-inches/year height growth. Select Low-Medium for low or medium growth rate. Select Medium for 12- to 24-inches/year height growth. Select Medium-High for medium or high growth rate. Select High for more than 24-inches/year height growth.

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Mature Height

Mature height will vary considerably by cultivar and site and is shown here assuming adequate care. Select Low for less than 20 feet mature height. Select Low-Medium for low or medium mature height. Select Medium for 20 to 40 feet mature height. Select Medium-High for medium or high mature height. Select High for more than 40 feet mature height.

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Longevity

The typical life span of a good tree in a suburban neighborhood is 30 to 50 years, while downtown trees may only last 5 to 10 years. People tend to plant fast-growing trees that often have fairly short lives. While some of this is all right, homeowners and communities should also plant trees that might grow slower (though some grow quite fast) but that are longer-lived. Select Low for less than 25 years typical life span. Select Medium for 25 to 50 years typical life span. Select High for more than 50 years typical life span.

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Powerline Suitability

Only very short trees should be planted under or directly adjacent to overhead electric lines. Medium height trees should be offset 15 to 20 feet horizontally from electric lines. Large trees should be offset 30 feet. Wider crowned trees like elms or maples should be offset more than narrower crowned trees like spruces or firs. If you suspect that you are planting in an area with underground electric lines or other buried utilities, call Blue Stakes at 1-800-662-4111 to have utilities located and marked. 'Yes' in this database means a tree is suitable for planting directly under powerlines. 'No' means it is not.

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Crown Shapes

Crown shape varies considerably by cultivar and sometimes by site. The common crown shape for a species is shown as follows: Pyramidal, Round, Columnar, Weeping, Broad, Oval, Vase, Layered, Shrubby, and Irregular.

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Ornamental Features

Ornamental characteristics are important factors in tree selection even though they usually have little to do with whether a tree can survive and thrive on its site. Ornamental factors to consider include flower and fruit presence and appearance, foliage color and texture, bark characteristics, shade density, fall color, and winter appearance. Some trees have thorns or spines, objectionable odors, a tendency to have basal or root sprouts, or maintenance-related needs that also should be considered. 'Yes' in this database means that a species is noted for a particular ornamental feature; 'No' means it is not, though there may be exceptions depending on cultivar.

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Tolerance of Shade

Shade tolerant plants often are best planted in at least partial shade, though many will do well in full sun. Shade intolerant plants usually need full sun to thrive.

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Tolerance of Salt

Generally means tolerance to salt on above ground plant surfaces, though may indicate some tolerance to soil salinity.

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Tolerance of Drought

Indicates the tree's tolerance of low soil moisture, heat and/or low humidity.

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Tolerance of Poor Drainage

Indicates the tree's tolerance to waterlogging, compaction, or otherwise poorly oxygenated soil.

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Tolerance of Alkalinity

Indicates the tree's tolerance of high soil pH or soil alkalinity; soil pH above 6.5 or 7.

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Ease of Transplanting

This describes a tree's relative likelihood of transplanting success. A low ranking indicates a plant that may need extra care at planting and may do better if transplanted while fairly small. Select Low for low transplanting difficulty. Select Medium for medium transplanting difficulty. Select High for high transplanting difficulty.

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